International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies <p><strong>The International Journal of Interreligious &amp; Intercultural Studies (IJIIS)&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;is a worldwide, peer-reviewed publication for scientists, academics, researchers and observers on topics surrounding religion, culture and all their interaction with social, political and economic realities, globalization, industry and other phenomena that significantly affect human lives in various parts of the world. IJIIS expects to publish articles that investigate, critically assess, and foster intellectual exchanges at the theoretical, philosophical as well as applied levels of knowledge on interreligious and intercultural matters. Its primary purpose is to generate scholarly exchanges of ideas, criticisms, and debates on the realities of religious life in a complex, multicultural world.</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br>The IJIIS site and its metadata are licensed under CC BY-NC-SA.</p> UNHI PRESS en-US International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies 2655-3538 On vampire squid and pie in the sky - Reflections on greed, altruism, global capitalism, Muslim and other ethics <p>This article points to some of the ethical short-comings of global capitalism in historical and contemporary contexts. Comparison of late eighteenth/early nineteenth century capitalist enterprises including the British and Dutch East India Companies and contemporary investment banking houses including Goldman Sachs indicates that ethical problems inherent in global capitalism have not changed significantly over the centuries. The analysis presented here builds on explicit critiques of capitalism by the eighteenth-century economist Adam Smith and contemporary critiques by linguist and social critic Noam Chomsky and implicit ones Reggae star Jimmy Cliff. Islamic finance is often described as an alternative to capitalisms that avoid greed based ethnical problems. This is not necessarily the case if Islamic finance is merely fiqh compliant. The fact that Goldman Sachs and other Western banks have entered the Islamic finance business buttresses this position. The economic ethics of the eleventh/twelfth century Muslim theologian and philosopher Hamid al-Ghazali and the contempory Muslim legal scholar Khaled Abou el Fadl offer possible correctives. If, however, Evolutionary biologist Lynn Margulis is correct and greed is a basic component of human nature, the full realization of any ethical economics is unlikely.</p> Mark Woodward ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-26 2021-12-26 4 2 1 21 10.32795/ijiis.vol4.iss2.2002.2224 The Religious Philosophy of Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al-Habashi Al-Harari and the Doctrines and Politics of Al-Ahbash: an Evaluation <p><em>Shaikh Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn Yusuf Al-Habashi Al-Harari of Ethiopia is a controversial Islamic scholar and founder of Al-Ahbash in Lebanon. He was involved in the struggle mainly with the Islamic fundamentalist Wahhabis there and was expelled from Ethiopia in 1947. After living in different cities, he settled down at Beirut, Lebanon in 1950. He was declared leader of the Jam’iyyat al-mashari’ al-khayriyya al-islamiyya (Association of Islamic Charitable Projects) in 1983 after the death of its founder Shiakh Muhiyy al-Din al-Ajuz. Since then, it has been known as ‘Al-Ahbash’ (the Ethiopians) after his title Al-Habashi. Al-Ahbash became one of the most controversial Muslim associations in the contemporary spectrum of Islamic groups because of its religious philosophy and doctrines.</em></p> <p><em>Al-Ahbash philosophy blended Sunni and Shi’a theology with Sufi spiritualism into a doctrinal eclecticism. Its ideological discourses mainly follow Shafi’i, Ash’ari and Maturidi doctrines. Al-Ahbash’s doctrine has also been influenced by some Sufi orders (tariqas) like Rifa’iyya and Qadiriyya. It emphasized Islam’s innate pluralism and determines the religious and political program, which do not fit with the conventional Islamists idea. It advocated for opposition to Islamic political activism and the use of violence against the ruling order. These attributes opposed to the political thoughts of many Islamic thinkers like Ibn Taymiyya, Ibn Abd Al-Wahhab, Sayyid Qutb. The most controversial issue in Al-Ahbash doctrine is the question of the relation among religion, politics, and the state in Islam. Al-Ahbash advocated the separation of religion and state and thereby rejected the idea of an Islamic state. Its views on education, women and science also contradict many of the above named writers opinions. Thus, Al-Ahbash represents a new but controversial view in Islam. This paper is aimed at understanding the philosophy and political doctrines of al-Ahbash.</em></p> Md. Thowhidul Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-26 2021-12-26 4 2 22 37 10.32795/ijiis.vol4.iss2.2021.755 Religion, Culture and the Process of Marginalization <p><strong>Abstract:</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;Religion is a force under which we understand the framework of social exclusion or integration across the world. The growing impact of religion on peoples’ lives globally has seen a massive resurgence of newly imposed guidelines, rules, and regulations in societies. It has been a great impact on social conditioning, both demographically and psychographically. For an increasing majority of the global population, religion has powerfully anchored forms of identity, meaning, community, and purpose. And the same religion, through cultural roots, has created newer forms of marginalization across the societies and nations. All over the world nowadays people are discussing the problems of marginalized groups -their social, ethnic, economic, and cultural problems. Marginality with all aspects is indeed a major problem to be reckoned with in the world. By and large, most of the marginalized groups constitute minorities religious, ethnic, linguistic, or otherwise- in different countries. There are sub-cultures in mainstream cultures or religions. Invariably they are impoverished people constituting o minority groups. They suffer from economic, social, or political impoverishment and find themselves estranged from this mainstream. Their marginality may vary in degree, extent, or intensity. Most countries and cultures have empowered groups at one pole and impoverished groups at the other and between the two, there are graded levels of power and poverty. This paper discusses the correlation between religion, culture, and the process of marginalization.</p> Preeti Oza ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-26 2021-12-26 4 2 38 47 10.32795/ijiis.vol4.iss2.2021.710 From Manga Bible to Messiah: A Pop-culture Exploration of the Indonesian Christian Comics <p>Comics culture has a long precedence in Indonesian art tradition. Earlier visual art appeared in the Hindu-Buddhist temples and in the colonial period. Once, Indonesian comics enjoyed the golden age in the 1970s and 1980s in which the comics sought inspiration from local legends and <em>wayang </em>themes. However, the flood of Western and Japanese comics eroded the supremacy of Indonesian comics. For the latter, it is part of the Japanophile, which later followed by Koreaphile as two global cultural forces overwhelmed Indonesia presently. Manga comics, for example, has become a dominant visual art in the comics market in Indonesia and influencing the style of Indonesian visual art production. Religion is another socio-cultural terrain affected by this cultural development.&nbsp;The present article is an exploration of the comics as a visual art in the religious landscape of Indonesia, especially among the Christians. Comics as the locus of the technology of enchantment renders the trace of religious shift among the average religionists. Employing visual rhetoric criticism, the article will look at the ideological and rhetorical elements of the visual production, and the cultural shifting in the Indonesian Christianity. It further touches upon the notion of cuteness (<em>chibi</em>) and gender as examples of religious rhetoric maintaining a certain ideological position.</p> Hendrikus Paulus Kaunang Leonard Chrysostomos Epafras ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-26 2021-12-26 4 2 48 63 10.32795/ijiis.vol4.iss2.2021.1480 The roots of 21st century Malay anger: When young men and women come to the fore <p>This article seeks to explain briefly to the reader about far right nationalist movements in Malaysia. While this is not a recent occurrence, it spiked during the time of Pakatan Harapan, the Opposition bloc that won the 13<sup>th</sup> Malaysia General Elections. Seeing non Malay/Muslim faces in the new government frightened many, even those who were against the former Barisan Nasional government. The paper is based on my current research on Malay youth identity of both genders, who are pushing the Malay narrative to the fore, as they demand their rights as Malays; Covid 19 has shown that economic opportunities are getting more scarce. The people I am studying and have spoken to feel that they have low social capital, and their uneasiness at seeing minority communities ‘thrive’ in Malaysia. What is causing this fear? This article posits economic reasons.</p> Dina S. Zaman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-26 2021-12-26 4 2 66 74 10.32795/ijiis.vol4.iss2.2002.2225 Experiences of interreligious encounter at religiously affiated hospital: Striving to build amicable interreligious relationship through healthcare service in Yogyakarta context <p>This paper aims to examine the interreligious encounter experiences of patients and their families who have diverse religious backgrounds and come to religiously affiliated hospitals (different from their religion). The main question raised is how this experience strengthens their recognition and respect toward other religions, so they are enabled to build amicable interreligious relations. This study is necessary especially in the context of Yogyakarta, which claims itself as ‘City of Tolerance,’ but unfortunately, this claim and image have faded because of many cases of intolerance in multiple social settings, such as school, campus, worship place, religious event, boarding house, even also cemetery. Meanwhile, in Yogyakarta, three major religiously affiliated hospitals have served Yogyakarta residents for tens to hundreds of years, namely Bethesda, Panti Rapih, and PKU Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta. Following Peter L. Berger, this paper argues that hospital can be seen as a unique social setting, in which pluralism as empirical experience truly happens because, in terms of attitude, the hospital is an institution that is in its service should practice no discrimination toward people from a different background (ethnicity or religiosity) related to service for humanity. Therefore hospital will be a place of encounter for people from various backgrounds and identities. Within the religiously affiliated hospital, pluralism is not only a formal philosophical concept but a social situation in which people with different ethnicities, religions, worldviews, and moralities live together peacefully and interact with each other amicably.</p> Jekonia Tarigan Heddy Shri Ahimsa-Putra Leonard Chrysostomos Epafras ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-26 2021-12-26 4 2 75 97 10.32795/ijiis.vol4.iss2.2021.1989 Revitalizing the cultural identity of Bali through spatial planning in Denpasar <p>Bali capital city of Denpasar supposed to reflect a strong Balinese cultural identities, but in reality that cultural identities has declined along of the historical changes and process of development. This study examines the decline of Balinese cultural identities in spatial planning, by focusing it on how to revitalize it and its implications for modern society. Designed has qualitative research, this study collected data through observation, interview, and documentation studies. Data collected analysed by theories geographic and structural functional theories supported by ethnography, semiotics and acculturation theories applied them ecliticly.</p> <p>The results of this study indicate a decline in Balinese cultural identity in spatial planning which has been caused by multicultural community factors, spatial functions that do not exist in the Balinese cultural concept, two forms of traditional village governance and village/<em>kelurahan</em>, as well as changes in the use of the basic dimensions of <em>sikut/gegulak</em> becomes a metric. This study propose strategy of revitalization by reestablishing the values of Balinese cultural identity, cultural literacy, classification and zoning of new functions, synchronizing the authority of traditional villages and villages, and converting basic dimensions into development guidelines.</p> <p>This study offers two findings, that is (1) practical finding relate to the fact that Balinese culture in spatial planning has been applied in the preparation of spatial plans for the city of Denpasar but has not yet been properly implemented; (2) theoretical findings show that Balinese cultural identity in spatial planning is universal, has the ability to absorb elements of external cultures while it is able to maintain its unique cultural identities.</p> I Gusti Putu Anindya Putra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-26 2021-12-26 4 2 98 116 10.32795/ijiis.vol4.iss2.2021.1733 Hambor as Little Narrative in Managing Conflict and Peace Situation in Manggarai, Flores, East Nusa Tenggara <p>This article explores the practice of <em>Hambor</em> tradition as little narrative in managing conflict and peace situations in Manggarai, Eastern Indonesia. Hambor, which means peace, is a component of local wisdom and a strategy for resolving conflict based on local culture. There are several issues to address, including the following: what is the meaning, impact, and manifestation of <em>Hambor</em> for Manggarai people on a personal and social level? What is the role of Hambor tradition in managing conflict and peace in Manggarai? This research used the ethnographic method through the genetic structuralism approach developed by the French philosopher and sociologist Pierre Bourdieu to understand the meaning, impact, and implementation of the Hambor process in daily life by the Manggaraian speech community. The research result shows that Hambor is the leading force in creating peace and harmony for the Manggarai people. Hambor is the substance of harmony between humans, the world (<em>tana lino</em>), the ancestors (<em>wura agu ceki</em>), and the God (<em>Mori Kraéng</em>). Hambor process in Manggarai will be useful if it is based on a mutual commitment to overcoming disputes, transformative option (post-conflict), and the involvement and willingness of perpetrator and victim to forgive one another.</p> Maksimilianus Jemali JB Banawiratma Wening Udasmoro ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-26 2021-12-26 4 2 117 141 10.32795/ijiis.vol4.iss2.2002.2226