International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies <p><strong>The International Journal of Interreligious &amp; Intercultural Studies (IJIIS)&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;is a worldwide, peer-reviewed publication for scientists, academics, researchers and observers on topics surrounding religion, culture and all their interaction with social, political and economic realities, globalization, industry and other phenomena that significantly affect human lives in various parts of the world. IJIIS expects to publish articles that investigate, critically assess, and foster intellectual exchanges at the theoretical, philosophical as well as applied levels of knowledge on interreligious and intercultural matters. Its primary purpose is to generate scholarly exchanges of ideas, criticisms, and debates on the realities of religious life in a complex, multicultural world.</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br>The IJIIS site and its metadata are licensed under CC BY-NC-SA.</p> en-US (Dicky Sofjan) (IJIIS) Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 A Buddhist Framework for Building Youth Capacities for Peace through Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) <p><em>In our world today, violence permeates every aspect of life from conflict to peaceful settings. Peacebuilding requires collective effort. Educating everyone to be capable peacebuilder is the fastest way to achieve this collective peace. Shaping all education systems toward peacebuilding is a way to do this. This paper deals with how to turn TVET into peace-oriented program. While existing studies that link TVET and peacebuilding focus on how the program itself contributes to addressing conflict drivers in the larger society, this paper contributes a framework for internal human cultivation of TVET learners to be capable peacebuilders in their world of work. Youth is the target group because they are the dominant participants of TVET programs around the world and they are seen as the future of their nation. Based on a grounded-theory approach and reinterpretation of the Buddha’s teachings in the Sutta Pitaka, this paper constructed a Buddhist framework for holistic vocational training that builds youth capacities for peace. This framework has four components: job skills, work attitudes, work ethics, and wisdom. The paper also gives recommendations on how to apply this framework to improve TVET in the future. The paper argues that for the common goal of peace, future peace-oriented TVET needs wisdom from local cultures and religions to enrich the knowledge and be rooted in the local context.</em></p> Ngoc Bich Ly Le ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Magical and Charming Chinese Language Helping Chinese Tourism Market with a New Look & a New Height in Bali <p>China is an ancient civilization with a splendid culture of 5,000 years. It has a long history and a broad and profound culture. The Chinese language is magical and unique with a long history and a profound background. It is unique among many languages in the world and with the largest number of people in the world. The UN World Tourism Organization has recently officially designated Chinese as an official language. In the era of globalization, the importance of internationalization of Chinese is self-evident. Currently, the Tourism Confucius Institute established at Udayana University in Bali is an important platform for Chinese language promotion. Bali, as a world-class tourist destination, is the first choice for Chinese tourists to visit Indonesia. Among the tourists from all over the world, Chinese tourists occupied one third. It is the main force of tourism consumption in Bali and has a very special status. Carrying out Chinese (tourism) teaching here can improve the Chinese level and service quality of local tourism practitioners in receiving Chinese tourists and effectively communicate with Chinese tourists and provide high-quality services and ensure the sustainable development and virtuous circle of the Chinese tourist market in Bali. It also contributes to the friendly cooperation between China and Indonesia in tourism and other fields, and cultivate comprehensive tourism Chinese talents for the tourism development in Bali, meanwhile, after the pandemic, when Chinese tourists arrived as scheduled, it helps Bali's tourism development showing a new look and the tourism economy reaching a new height.</p> Tao Xian Guang ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Ulun Danu Beratan Temple as an Economic Contest Arena in a Multicultural Society <p>Ulun Danu Beratan Temple as a Tourist Destination Area (DTA) located in Candikuning Village. The natural beauty of the surrounding causes tourist visits to increase every year. As a DTA, the area outside the Ulun Danu Beratan Temple is used as an arena for economic contestation for a multicultural community. There are several things that make the Ulun Danu Beratan Temple as an arena of economic contestation for a multicultural society such as natural beauty, "identity politics", anthropocentrism modernism, Tri Hita Karana ideology and economics, with an economic contestation process caused by several things such as the development of tourism in Candikuning Village, domestic tourist visits, religious identity, tolerance of the Balinese Hindu community and the entry of non-Hindu communities into Candikuning Village. The contestation has implications for religious life, the sanctity of temples, the social life of the community, such as the value of gotong royong, the ngejot tradition which has begun to fade, as well as the ketog semprong tradition. It also has implications for politics, such as the strengthening of identity politics. In addition, it has implications for the economy such as the creation of employment opportunities and its side effects such as lake pollution. This study uses a multidisciplinary approach to religion and culture and uses interpretive critical qualitative analysis. The theory used analyzes the theory of hegemony, tourism destination development, community change, and sociocultural systems.</p> Gede Mahardika, Ketut Suda, I Wayan Winaja ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Friendship and the Future of Interreligious Cooperation <p>To face contemporary global challenges like climate change, interreligious cooperation that extends beyond mere dialogue or declaration will become increasingly important. Drawing upon Aristotle’s multi-layered description of friendship and recognizing that nearly all the world’s population is already implicitly involved in interreligious friendships of utility framed and enabled by global neoliberalism, this article argues for a constructive account of interreligious cooperation built upon interreligious friendship. This cooperation is localized, flexible, and open to participation by all in the community without requiring predetermined agreement or universally binding norms.</p> Paul Martens ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Revitalization of Cultural Tourism Destinations for the Outside of Uluwatu Temple in the New Normal Era <p>The outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic at the beginning of 2020 in Indonesia and around the world made Bali tourism really experience an extraordinary downturn. To the extent that Bali's economy has fallen far below the national economic growth, which previously surpassed national economic growth, reaching more than 5% (Bank Indonesia Bali Report May 2020). Especially for Bali, it is necessary to immediately address all affected tourist destinations. The quick and appropriate steps to restore Bali's tourism conditions are through the recovery of post-Covid-19 Bali tourism, known as the revitalization of tourist destinations.</p> <p>This study focuses on (1) the factors causing the revitalization of cultural tourism destinations outside the Uluwatu temple in the new normal era, (2) the process of revitalizing cultural tourism destinations outside the Uluwatu temple in the new normal era, (3) the implications of revitalizing tourist destinations the culture of the area outside the Uluwatu temple on socio-cultural, economic, and religious life in the new normal era. The theory used in this research is; (1) Reconstruction theory put forward by George S. Count and Harold Rugg which says society needs reconstruction/change and social change involves changing education, using education in changing society; (2) Structural Theory by Anthony Giddens which says individuals are agents who have a lot of knowledge (knowledgeable agents) and the ability to understand their own actions; and (3) Stuart Hall's Reception Theory which says that audience members can play an active role in decoding messages because they depend on their own social context, and may be able to change the message themselves through collective action, which means the community's response to the implementation of revitalization. cultural tourism destinations outside the Uluwatu temple.</p> <p>This research uses qualitative analysis method with interpretive descriptive. The results obtained are as follows; (1) the revitalization program is very much in line with the trend of government programs after the Covid-19 outbreak, which is highly expected by tourists today because of the implementation of CHSE-based health protocols (Cleanliness, Healthy, Safety, Environment) in the new normal era regarding the revitalization of tourist destinations; (2) the process of revitalizing tourist destinations in the new normal era, there are 3 strategies applied to accelerate the revitalization, namely; a) Innovation, b) Collaboration, c) Communication; (3) the implications of revitalizing cultural tourism destinations outside the Uluwatu Temple in the new normal era, namely the socio-cultural life of the community is stretching again, the economy is starting to grow and religious behavior in the aspect of the dimension of belief makes people closer to Ida Shang Hyang Widi Wasa.</p> I Made Wijaya Kusuma, I Wayan Winaja, I Wayan Budi Utama ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Modernism in Buddhist Thoughts – Various Facets of Religion, Rituals, and Reincarnation <p>When we look at the concept of <em>Modern Buddhism</em>, approximately nine to ten percent&nbsp; of the world is Buddhist. Over half of Chinese Buddhists practise Mahayana. China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam are the four biggest Buddhist nations. Tibetan Buddhism was accepted by non-Tibetans, mostly in the West, after China colonised Tibet. Almost 488 million Buddhists (9–10%) live in the 21st century. About half of China's population practises Mahayana Buddhism, which is thriving. China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam have the largest Buddhist populations and influence. After China colonised Tibet, Westerners and others adopted Tibetan Buddhism. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, Buddhism responded to shifting circumstances that were impossible in premodern Buddhist religious and cultural world. Western religious, political, and economic principles influenced Buddhist nations that were not subjugated. Asians, Buddhist and non-Buddhist, were influenced by modern rationalistic and scientific ideas, liberal democracy, socialism, and capitalism. Buddhism resurged in India and expanded across Europe and beyond due to Asian Buddhist practises. Scholars most usually refer to forms of Buddhism that originated in the 19th century and combined Buddhist doctrines and practises with key concepts of Western modernity as "Buddhist modernism." They outline the characteristics of Buddhist modernism as being characterised by a deemphasis on texts, logic, meditation, egalitarianism, and increased participation of women and laity, as well as a focus on texts, dogma, clerical hierarchy, "superstition," conventional cosmology, and icon worship. During the time of Christian missionary activity and European colonialism in Buddhist countries, Buddhist modernism began to emerge. It emerged as a form of counterbalance to these pressures as well as an appropriation of Western ideologies, religions, social systems, and lifestyles, leading to the blending of contemporary Western discourses and practises with Buddhism. This paper deliberates on&nbsp; certain global practices of different kinds of Buddhist thoughts</p> Preeti Oza ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Effects of Three Learning Models of Hindu Religious Education on Students' Critical Thinking and Their Spiritual Attitudes <p>This research reconstructed three learning models, i.e: social reconstruction model (SRM), open model (OM), and academic model (AM). The purpose of this research is to analyze the effect of the three learning models on critical thinking and spirituality attitude. This research was conducted with a non-equivalence post-test only control group design. The population was 638 students of Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha who studied Hinduism in odd semesters in the Academic Year 2021/2022. The sample was 174 students which were divided into three groups consisting of 58 students, each group studied with the SRM, OM, and AM models. The study groups is determined by a random technique. To measure of spirituality attitude, a questionnaire was used, while to measure students' critical thinking, a critical thinking test was used. To analyze the data, MANOVA was used. The results showed: 1) The effect of SRM is greater than the effect of OM on critical thinking; 2) the effect of SRM is greater than the effect of AM on critical thinking; 3) there is no difference in the effect of OM and AM on critical thinking; 4) SRM’s effect is equal to the OM’s effect on spirituality attitude; 5) the effect of SRM is greater than the effect of AM on spirituality attitude; 6) OM's effect is greater than AM's effect on spirituality attitude. The SRM is the best choice for Hindu Religious Education in order to achieve students’ critical thinking and their spirituality attitude optimally.</p> I Wayan Santyasa, Ida Ayu Gde Yadnyawati, I Ketut Suda ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The value The Value of Tri Kaya Parisudha Local Wisdom as a Form of Religious Education Transformation <p>This study aims to develop the values ??of local wisdom, especially <em>Tri Kaya Parisudha,</em> in transforming education. The development of the value of local wisdom <em>Tri Kaya Parisudha</em> is due to the increasing loss of local wisdom along with the increasingly rapid development of the times. This type of research is Research and Development (R&amp;D) using a 4D development model. The subjects in this study were two experts or expert practitioners in the field of religion, five internal practitioners at STAHN Mpu Kuturan, and 86 respondents in the limited test. Methods of data collection in this study using interviews, questionnaires, and document studies. The data analysis method used the descriptive qualitative data analysis method. Content validation against indicators of local wisdom values ??was analyzed using Content Validity Ratio (CVR) analysis. Limited test results on the value of local wisdom using the average score of the respondents. Based on the research results at the definition stage, a needs analysis was carried out, namely 1) Performing an analysis of the values ??of Hindu local wisdom. 2) Formulation of local wisdom values ??following the vision and mission of STAH N Mpu Kuturan Singaraja. At the design stage, activities are carried out, including 1. Preparation of indicators for local wisdom values. 2. Preparation of the <em>Tri Kaya Parisudha</em> Questionnaire. Several activities are carried out at the development stage, including a) Content validity test. b) Revised indicators and questionnaires. The product is disseminated through quality assurance (P2M) STAHN Mpu Kuturan Singaraja at the dissemination stage.</p> Ni Nyoman Kurnia Wati, I Gede Suwindia ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 18 Nov 2022 02:43:19 +0000 Civic Engagement in Asia: Lessons from Transformative Learning in the Quest for A Sustainable Future <p>Climate Change is a hot topic to be discussed in various countries. This is not surprisingly, since the climate change has had a tremendous impact on human life, ranging from economic, political, legal to socio-cultural aspects. Due to the tremendous and multi-complex impacts, it is not surprising if many countries begin to think about their development strategies that are at crossroads or even starting to question whether or not the planned development program is a sustainable manner? Such debates are taking place around the world and there is no single answer that can provide a solution to the impact of recent climate change.</p> I Ketut Ardhana ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000