Experiences of interreligious encounter at religiously affiated hospital: Striving to build amicable interreligious relationship through healthcare service in Yogyakarta context
This paper aims to examine the interreligious encounter experiences of patients and their families who have diverse religious backgrounds and come to religiously affiliated hospitals (different from their religion). The main question raised is how this experience strengthens their recognition and respect toward other religions, so they are enabled to build amicable interreligious relations. This study is necessary especially in the context of Yogyakarta, which claims itself as ‘City of Tolerance,’ but unfortunately, this claim and image have faded because of many cases of intolerance in multiple social settings, such as school, campus, worship place, religious event, boarding house, even also cemetery. Meanwhile, in Yogyakarta, three major religiously affiliated hospitals have served Yogyakarta residents for tens to hundreds of years, namely Bethesda, Panti Rapih, and PKU Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta. Following Peter L. Berger, this paper argues that hospital can be seen as a unique social setting, in which pluralism as empirical experience truly happens because, in terms of attitude, the hospital is an institution that is in its service should practice no discrimination toward people from a different background (ethnicity or religiosity) related to service for humanity. Therefore hospital will be a place of encounter for people from various backgrounds and identities. Within the religiously affiliated hospital, pluralism is not only a formal philosophical concept but a social situation in which people with different ethnicities, religions, worldviews, and moralities live together peacefully and interact with each other amicably.
Heddy Shri Ahimsa-Putra, “Kebhinnekaan Budaya Sebagai Modal Merespons Globalisasi,” LITERASI: Indonesian Journal of Humanities 4, no. 2 (2015): 167–75, p. 167; Robert W. Hefner, Routledge Handbook of Contemporary Indonesia (New York: Routledge 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017, 2018), p. 3 & 43.
Heddy Shri Ahimsa Putra, “From Pluralism to Multiculturalism: Challenges in Indonesia,” 2021.
Zainal Abidin Bagir, Robert W. Hefner and Ihsan Ali-Fauzi, Mengelola Keragaman Dan Kebebasan Beragama Di Indonesia: Sejarah, Teori Dan Advokasi (Yogyakarta: Center for Religious and Cross-cultural Studies/CRCS, Sekolah Pascasarjana, Universitas Gadjah Mada, 2014). p. 6.
Dicky Sofjan, “Religious Diversity and Politico-Religious Intolerance in Indonesia and Malaysia,” The Review of Faith & International Affairs 14, no. 4 (2016): 53–64. p. 56.
Edwin De Jong and Argo Twikromo, “Friction within Harmony: Everyday Dynamics and the Negotiation of Diversity in Yogyakarta, Indonesia,” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 48, no. 1 (2017): 71–90. p. 71.
Mohammad Iqbal Ahnaf dan Hairus Salim, Krisis Keistimewaan: Kekerasan Terhadap Minoritas Di Yogyakarta, 2nd ed. (Yogyakarta: Penerbit: CRCS (Center for Religious and Cross-cultural Studies) Progam Studi Agama dan Lintas Budaya Sekolah Pascasarjana Lintas Disiplin, Universitas Gadjah Mada, 2017). p. 2.
Mark Woodward, Java, Indonesia and Islam, vol. 3 (Springer Science & Business Media, 2010). p. 189.
Jan Sihar Aritonang and Karel Adriaan Steenbrink, A History of Christianity in Indonesia, vol. 35 (Brill, 2008). p. 646; Mohammad Iqbal Ahnaf dan Hairus Salim, Krisis Keistimewaan: Kekerasan Terhadap Minoritas Di Yogyakarta. p. 2.
Hyung-Jun Kim, Reformist Muslims in a Yogyakarta Village: The Islamic Transformation of Contemporary Socio-Religious Life (ANU Press, 2007). p. 4.
Mohammad Iqbal Ahnaf dan Hairus Salim, Krisis Keistimewaan: Kekerasan Terhadap Minoritas Di Yogyakarta. p. 2.
De Jong and Twikromo, “Friction within Harmony: Everyday Dynamics and the Negotiation of Diversity in Yogyakarta, Indonesia.” p.83;Paschalis M. Laksono, “‘Yogyakarta Berhati Nyaman’ [Yogyakarta’s Peaceful Heart],” 17, Buletin Antropologi 8 (1993). p. 44
De Jong and Twikromo, “Friction within Harmony: Everyday Dynamics and the Negotiation of Diversity in Yogyakarta, Indonesia.” p. 83.
Herry Zudianto, Kekuasaan Sebagai Wakaf Politik: Manajemen Yogyakarta Kota Multikultur (Kanisius, 2008). p. 49-50.
Yenny Zannuba Wahid, “Laporan Tahunan Kebebasan Beragama/Berkeyakinan Dan Intoleransi 2014 The Wahid Institute” (The Wahid Institute, 2014). p. 25.
detikNews, “Komnas HAM: Intoleransi Di Yogyakarta Sudah Di Ambang Batas,” Sabtu, Mei 04:38 WIB 2014, https://news.detik.com/berita/d-2595993/komnas-hamintoleransi-di-yogyakarta-sudah-di-ambang-batas.
Subhi Azhari and Halili, Indeks Kota Toleran (IKT) Tahun 2020 (Jakarta: Pustaka Masyarakat Setara, 2020).p. 11-12.
De Jong and Twikromo, “Friction within Harmony: Everyday Dynamics and the Negotiation of Diversity in Yogyakarta, Indonesia.” p. 72.
Dietram A Scheufele et al., “Social Structure and Citizenship: Examining the Impacts of Social Setting, Network Heterogeneity, and Informational Variables on Political Participation,” Political Communication, 21, no. 3 (2004): 315–38. p. 319.
Anis Farikhatin et al., “Mengelola Keragaman Di Sekolah,” 2016. p. 2
Mohammad Iqbal Ahnaf dan Hairus Salim, Krisis Keistimewaan: Kekerasan Terhadap Minoritas Di Yogyakarta. p. 4
“Kisah Di Balik Penurunan Baliho Mahasiswi Berjilbab - BBC News Indonesia,” accessed September 28, 2021, https://www.bbc.com/indonesia/indonesia-38288249.
Mohammad Iqbal Ahnaf dan Hairus Salim, Krisis Keistimewaan: Kekerasan Terhadap Minoritas Di Yogyakarta. p. 7.
Mohammad Iqbal Ahnaf dan Hairus Salim. p. 7.
Kompas Cyber Media, “Fakta Perusakan Nisan di Sleman Yogyakarta, Gembok Pintu Dirusak hingga Nisan Istri Pahlawan Revolusi Hangus Halaman all,” KOMPAS.com, April 8, 2019, https://regional.kompas.com/read/2019/04/08/13170051/fakta-perusakannisan-di-sleman-yogyakarta-gembok-pintu-dirusak-hingga-nisan.
Rumah Sakit Zending “Petronella”: Pekerjaan Di Rumah Sakit Zending “Petronella” Dengan 22 Buah Cabangnya, n.d. p. 10.
J.H. Kuyper, J.G. Scheurer: Orang Beriman Sekuat Batu Karang (Yogyakarta: Rumah Sakit Bethesda, n.d.). p. 40.
Sugiarti Siswadi, Rumah Sakit Bethesda Dari Masa Ke Masa, vol. Cetakan Pertama (Yogyakarta: Andi Offset, 1989). p. 183.
Abdul Munir Mulkhan, Kiai Ahmad Dahlan: Jejak Pembaruan Sosial Dan Kemanusiaan (Jakarta: Penerbit Buku Kompas, n.d.). p. 153; “Sejarah – RS PKU Jogja,” accessed October 5, 2020, http://rspkujogja.com/2014/09/07/sejarah/.
G.P. Sindhunata, S.J., Dari Onder De Bogen Ke Panti Rapih: Kenangan 70 Tahun (Yogyakarta: Kanisius, 1999). p. 7.
Anton Haryono, Awal Mulanya Adalah Muntilan: Misi Jesuit Di Yogyakarta, 1914-1940 (Kanisius, 2009). p. 151.
Sylvie Fortin and Serge Maynard, “Diversity, Conflict, and Recognition in Hospital Medical Practice,” Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry 42, no. 1 (2018): 32–48. p. 32.
Fortin and Maynard. p. 33.